In the present chapter, results about the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) on sporulation, mycelial growth, germination, as well as quality parameters on fruits are shown. The results demonstrate that chitosan can control various phytopathogen isolates from diverse fruits. The pathogens in the genera Colletotrichum, Fusarium, and Rhizopus are involved in important postharvest disease losses throughout the world. In Nayarit, producers had reported high postharvest losses not only at field but also during the commercial chain with their products, besides the resistance of several pathogens to fungicides, which traditionally are applied for controlling diseases. In this sense, the aim of this research group is focused on the research of alternative and effective methods for controlling postharvest diseases. In vivo results are promising due to a good control in important tropical fruits like banana, avocado, mango, and jackfruit. An enhancement in the chitosan antimicrobial activity is reported with the combination with GRAS substances, as well as the use of nanotechnology. Chitosan can be an environment-friendly alternative to the use of chemical fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases in fruits.
Part of the book: Chitin-Chitosan
This chapter consists of an overview with the most relevant results about the efficacy of Trichoderma on postharvest disease control. The results of investigations demonstrate that this fungus can control several phytopathogens in different fruits. Postharvest losses represent a major problem in several countries. The constant application of fungicides not only at field but also at postharvest stage has led to microbial resistance cases, which make the control of these pathogens difficult. Biological control is a promising alternative to chemical fungicide applications. In this sense, an eco-friendly alternative and effective approach for controlling diseases is the use of microbial antagonists like Trichoderma, which have several mechanisms of action to stop disease development. A crucial treat in biological control is related to the maintenance of microbial viability and efficacy, that is why other technologies like their incorporation into edible films and coatings, nanotechnology, microbial mixtures, among others have been applied in combination with Trichoderma successfully. An enhancement in biocontrol activity is achieved when alternative systems are combined like GRAS substances, biopolymers, and other antagonists. Thus, Trichoderma is an eco-friendly alternative to threat postharvest diseases as an alternative to chemical treatments.
Part of the book: Trichoderma