Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition and mortality remains high if there is no response with medical therapy. Recently, short-term percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (pMCS) devices have increased in use for refractory cardiogenic shock. These devices can provide full treatment or bridging to long-term MCS devices if patients need long-term support. There are four types of well-known MCS devices including Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA), TandemHeart (CardiacAssist, Pittsburgh, PA), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and intra-aortic balloon pump for short-term and percutaneous application. In this chapter, we aim to discuss the physiologic concept, clinical evidences and applications, indications-contraindications, complications, and comparison of these most commonly used short-term pMCS devices for advanced heart failure.
Part of the book: Heart Transplantation
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in adult population in the world. The disease includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This plaque narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke. There are many risk factors associated with cardio vascular disease (CVD). While some risk factors cannot be changed, such as family history, some of them can be modified with treatment such as abnormal blood lipid and sugar levels, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure. Research makes it clear that abnormal blood lipid (fat) levels have a strong correlation with the risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack and coronary death. Cholesterol plays detrimental roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and CVD. In this chapter, we aim to summarize the relationship between blood cholesterol levels and CVD.
Part of the book: Cholesterol