The approach to a patient with overt rectal prolapse remains controversial since the choice of the most appropriate technical option may be a difficult task. The different approaches are based upon patients’ age, comorbidities, sex, size of prolapse, associated incontinence, constipation, and urinary and genital disturbances. However, analysis of the literature failed to detect a significant evidence favoring one among the large number of those different surgical techniques proposed for the treatment of rectal prolapse. In fact, many randomized prospective controlled trials, comparing perineal and abdominal operations, rectopexy alone, resection alone and/or resection plus rectopexy could not find significant differences in terms of morbidity, mortality, improvement of incontinence or constipation, quality of life and recurrence. Therefore, without a clear-cut support by the literature, a pragmatic approach is necessary, applying common sense, experience and considering the availability of resources as well. Nevertheless, we may expect that definitive answers to many open questions about surgery of rectal prolapse may come from larger studies and longer follow-up.
Part of the book: Proctological Diseases in Surgical Practice
Tumor growth and spread are a complicated matter and are the result of many interconnected factors. The analysis of patterns emerging from highly numerous populations might help shed some light on such an intricate mechanism. In this respect, our studies are mostly based on the SEER database, a nation representative dataset collecting data regarding the US population, over a very long time span. This approach is revealed to be particularly useful for rare tumors, as prospective studies are not feasible. Here, we present the results and the clinical implications of our inquires: we show the impact on overall survival of several morphological and demographic characteristics of various malignancies including anorectal melanoma and neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix. The impact of surgical treatment is discussed as well. Finally, we endorse the need to find more reliable markers of tumor biology, such as genetic patterns, to tailor an effective multidisciplinary treatment.
Part of the book: Tumor Progression and Metastasis