In this chapter, techniques and application of multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for the assessment of skeletal muscle metabolism in health and disease are described. Studies focusing on glucose transport and utilization, lipid storage and consumption, handling of energy rich phosphates, and measurements of newly emerging noninvasive biomarkers, i.e., acetylcarnitine and carnosine are summarized. Muscle metabolism connections to exercise physiology and the development as well as possible treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes are also discussed. Taken together, multinuclear in vivo MRS on humans helped to uncover defects in skeletal muscle metabolic pathways in insulin-resistant conditions; and to discover links between defects in mitochondrial activity/capacity and lipid metabolism, as well as defects in whole-body and/or muscle glucose metabolism. There is also to mention that several of the MR-derived readouts are affected by both training status and metabolic disease in a specific way, and thus could serve as potential markers of training status and metabolic flexibility.
Part of the book: Muscle Cell and Tissue