High power target systems require reliable high-temperature heat transfer media. Dense granular flow materials have potential to work as heat transfer media, especially at high temperature. In this chapter, a brief review of dense granular and their heat transfer properties is introduced, including basic concepts of heat transfer, thermal behavior of these materials, and factors that affect this behavior. The implementation of these materials as targets is addressed, where two targets were designed, constructed, and tested based on the concept of dense granular flow. The results of the application of a hopper flow-type target in 2.5 MW accelerator-driven system (ADS) and a chute flow-type target in the material irradiation facility will be presented.
Part of the book: Principles and Applications in Nuclear Engineering