Renal replacement therapy in the form of renal transplantation (RT) is the treatment of choice in these patients. Various factors influence the graft survival, infections being most common. Infections account for 16% of patient deaths and 7.7% of death censored graft failure in renal transplant patients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication accounting for 45–72% of all infections. According to few studies UTI may have a negative impact over the long term survival of renal allograft. There are multiple factors that predispose these patients to UTI. Elderly age group, female gender, increased duration of catheterization and anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract are most common predisposing factors. E. coli is the most frequently isolated organisms from the urine of these patients. We would proceed further with two cases which presented as UTI in post-transplant period. The first patient transplanted (living donor related) for diabetes induced end stage renal disease had developed UTI 4 years post-transplant. The other patient underwent deceased donor renal transplant for adult polycystic disease related chronic kidney disease, presented 2 years post-transplant with UTI.
Part of the book: Urinary Tract Infection
Adrenal gland is an endocrine organ comprising of an outer cortex and inner medulla. These secrete various hormones that have a vital role in maintaining the normal homeostasis of the body. Lesions of adrenal cortex are quite common to encounter and most of these are related to the hormones secreted by three layers of adrenal cortex: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. Also it is very infrequent to encounter metastatic lesions in the adrenal glands too. So it is very important as a part of a clinician as well as a pathologist to know the pattern in which these hormones are secreted along with their physiological roles. Thus this chapter includes the disease that are related to excess as well as deficiencies of the hormones secreted by adrenal cortex. The chapter also includes various genetic syndromes that are associated with the disorders associated with hormones of adrenal cortex. The last part of the chapter includes a brief description of various benign as well as malignant lesions, the pathological as well as the etiological aspects and the hormonal abnormalities associated. This chapter thus mainly focuses on the pathology associated with the adrenal cortex and hormones secreted by the various layers of adrenal cortex.
Part of the book: Mitochondria and Brain Disorders