Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology has been an area of study in dentistry specifically a research interest in clinical orthodontics in which treatment option has been a dilemma for practitioners. Discussion between ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’ in growth modification has drawn spread however opposite opinions from different schools of thoughts in whether growth modification itself is working. To provide a better illustration of biological process within TMJ, this chapter discussed aspects including overall condylar growth; the histological structure of endochondral bone of condyle; extracellular factors that regulate proliferation, differentiation, hypertrophy, terminal maturation and apoptosis of chondrocytes; and molecular regulation of the entire process. An understanding of the pathology, histology, cellular and molecular events related to the morphology and growth of TMJ forms through reading over this chapter; the emphasis of the mechanotransduction mediators and the influence of mechanical strain on the level of expression of genes were presented in details. Novel studies using virus vector stimulating condylar growth through enhancing angiogenesis within a time limit were discussed; also clinical implications in treatment options in relation to mandibular advancement were briefly compared.
Part of the book: Temporomandibular Joint Pathology