Plants are vital to life as their presence maintains ecosystem on this living globe. Environmental stresses trigger multiple responses initiated by plant cells to save plant life, from altered gene expression up to changes in cellular metabolism to regulate plant growth rates, which lead to better crop yield. The production of different osmoprotectants like proline, glycine-betaine (GB), trehalose, and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase has shown a promising role to keep away cells from immediate cellular damage. Root-to-shoot ratio was enhanced in the drought-affected genotypes, while osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes take up the role to overcome drought situation in wheat germplasm. PEG-induced protocol was used to find out the production of osmolytes (proline, glycine-betaine, and trehalose) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and APX) biochemically. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes were enhanced significantly in all germplasms indicating the defensive measures of plant cells in drought situation. DNA fingerprinting results have shown that the different wheat germplasms have an association with the levels of osmoprotectants and antioxidant enzymes during drought stress.
Part of the book: Global Wheat Production
The criteria of wheat quality are varied, which is suitable for one product may not have properties for another product. Wheat endosperm contains the proteins, carbohydrates, iron, and B-vitamins such as riboflavin and niacin. It also contains soluble fiber as well as trace minerals. Soluble fiber is considered to have health benefits that are not shared by insoluble part. It is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, relatively high as compared with other major cereals. Natural wheat has a number of medical properties, such as every component of the whole wheat grain contains elements that the person’s body requires. Wheat comprises carbohydrates and gluten protein, which offer massive amounts of energy; inner bran coats, phosphates, and other mineral salts; and dietary fiber, which helps with bowel movements. Wheat protein and vitamins B and E aid to develop and rebuild muscle tissues. The wheat germs that are eliminated during the purification process are also high in important vitamin E, which could also lead to heart disease if not consumed. Constipation and other gastrointestinal disorders and nutritional diseases are common as a consequence of the lack of vitamins and minerals in refined wheat flour.
Part of the book: Wheat