Polymorphism or variation in DNA sequence can affect individual phenotypes such as color of skin or eyes, susceptible to diseases, and respond to drug, vaccine, chemical, and pathogen. It occurs more often than mutations (frequency ≥ 1%). The common polymorphism is single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) which is a single base change in a DNA sequence that occurs most commonly in the human genome. SNPs have been used as molecular markers in a wide range of studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) searches for SNPs that occur more frequently in person with a particular disease than in person without the disease and pinpoint genes or regions that may contribute to a risk of disease. This topic describes about polymorphisms, SNPs, GWAS, linkage disequilibrium (LD), minor allele frequency, haplotype, method for SNP genotyping, and application of SNPs and genome-wide association study in human diseases and drug development.
Part of the book: Genetic Diversity and Disease Susceptibility