Fault diagnosis in continuous dynamic systems can be challenging, since the variables in these systems are typically characterized by autocorrelation, as well as time variant parameters, such as mean vectors, covariance matrices, and higher order statistics, which are not handled well by methods designed for steady state systems. In dynamic systems, steady state approaches are extended to deal with these problems, essentially through feature extraction designed to capture the process dynamics from the time series. In this chapter, recent advances in feature extraction from signals or multivariate time series are reviewed. These methods can subsequently be considered in a classical statistical monitoring framework, such as used for steady state systems. In addition, an extension of nonlinear signal processing based on the use of unthresholded or global recurrence quantification analysis is discussed, where two multivariate image methods based on gray level co-occurrence matrices and local binary patterns are used to extract features from time series. When considering the well-known simulated Tennessee Eastman process in chemical engineering, it is shown that time series features obtained with this approach can be an effective means of discriminating between different fault conditions in the system. The approach provides a general framework that can be extended in multiple ways to time series analysis.
Part of the book: Time Series Analysis