The effective and reliable management of malaria vectors is still a global challenge. Recently, it has been noted that the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, RTS,S/AS01 showed only transient protection, particularly in infants, and rapid resistance has been developing to artemisinin-based drugs. Therefore, the control of malaria mosquito vectors according to strategies of integrated vector management (IVM) is receiving emphasis. A rather wide number of novel mosquito control tools have been tested, including attractive toxic sugar baits, eave tubes, nano-synthesized pesticides loaded with microbial- and plant-borne compounds, biocontrol agents with little non-target effects, new adult repellents, oviposition deterrents, and even acoustic larvicides. However, their real-world applications remain limited. Most National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to reduce malaria incidence but generally have insufficient impact on malaria prevalence. Here, we focus on facts, trends, and current challenges in the employment of the above-mentioned vector control tools in the fight against malaria. We emphasize the needs for better vector control tools used in IVM to overcome the challenges posed by outdoor transmission and growing levels of insecticide resistance, which are threatening the efficacy of LLINs and IRS.
Part of the book: Towards Malaria Elimination