Chemo-resistance of breast cancer is a major obstacle for successful treatment and is mainly represented as a defect in apoptosis. The differential effects of platinum-based drugs (PBDs) were assessed on breast cancer cell ultrastructure. Three representative cells, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), were treated with different concentrations and timings of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, using advanced techniques in molecular biology, we demonstrated that calpain-1 plays an essential role in modulating breast cancer cell sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We also showed that the correlation of its expression to the proliferating/apoptotic index using immunohistochemical staining in TNBC tissue was variable. Exploring new pathways will help in overcoming chemo-resistance in breast cancer cells.
Part of the book: Breast Cancer and Surgery