Drinking water is vital for everyday life. We are dependent on water for everything from cooking to sanitation. Without water, it is estimated that the average, healthy human won’t live more than 3–5 days. The water is therefore essential for the productivity of our community. The water treatment process (WTP) may vary slightly at different locations, depending on the technology of the plant and the water it needs to process, but the basic principles are largely the same. As the WTP is complex, traditional laboratory methods and mathematical models have limitations to optimize this type of operations. These pose challenges for water-sanitation services and research community. To overcome this matter, deep learning is used as an alternative to provide various solutions in WTP optimization. Compared to traditional machine learning methods and because of its practicability, deep learning has a strong learning ability to better use data sets for data mining and knowledge extraction. The aim of this survey is to review the existing advanced approaches of deep learning and their applications in WTP especially in coagulation control and monitoring. Besides, we also discuss the limitations and prospects of deep learning.
Part of the book: Desalination and Water Treatment
Among the learning algorithms, one of the most popular and easiest to understand is the decision tree induction. The popularity of this method is related to three nice characteristics: interpretability, efficiency, and flexibility. Decision tree can be used for both classification and regression kind of problem. Automatic learning of a decision tree is characterised by the fact that it uses logic and mathematics to generate rules instead of selecting them based on intuition and subjectivity. In this review, we present essential steps to understand the fundamental concepts and mathematics behind decision tree from training to building. We study criteria and pruning algorithms, which have been proposed to control complexity and optimize decision tree performance. A discussion around several works and tools will be exposed to analyze the techniques of variance reduction, which do not improve or change the representation bias of decision tree. We chose Pima Indians Diabetes dataset to cover essential questions to understand pruning process. The paper’s original contribution is to provide an up-to-date overview that is fully focused on implemented algorithms to build and optimize decision trees. This contributes to evolve future developments of decision tree induction.
Part of the book: Data Mining