Part of the book: Optoelectronic Devices and Properties
Part of the book: Optical Sensors
Part of the book: Advances in Optical Fiber Technology
Part of the book: Solar Cells
Graphene has amazing abilities due to its unique band structure characteristics defining its enhanced electrical capabilities for a material with the highest characteristic mobility known to exist at room temperature. The high mobility of graphene occurs due to electron delocalization and weak electron–phonon interaction, making graphene an ideal material for electrical applications requiring high mobility and fast response times. In this review, we cover graphene’s integration into infrared (IR) devices, electro-optic (EO) devices, and field effect transistors (FETs) for radio frequency (RF) applications. The benefits of utilizing graphene for each case are discussed, along with examples showing the current state-of-the-art solutions for these applications.
Part of the book: Graphene
The implementation of strained layer superlattices (SLS) for detection of infrared (IR) radiation has enabled compact, high performance IR detectors and two-dimensional focal plane arrays (FPAs). Since initially proposed three decades ago, SLS detectors exploiting type II band structures existing in the InAs/GaSb material system have become integral components in high resolution thermal detection and imaging systems. The extensive technological progress occurring in this area is attributed in part to the band structure flexibility offered by the nearly lattice-matched InAs/AlSb/Ga(In)Sb material system, enabling the operating IR wavelength range to be tailored through adjustment of the constituent strained layer compositions and/or thicknesses. This has led to the development of many advanced type II SLS device concepts and architectures for low-noise detectors and FPAs operating from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to very long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR) bands. These include double heterostructures and unipolar-barrier structures such as graded-gap M-, W-, and N-structures, nBn, pMp, and pBn detectors, and complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) and pBiBn designs. These diverse type II SLS detector architectures have provided researchers with expanded capabilities to optimize detector and FPA performance to further benefit a broad range of electro-optical/IR applications.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials for Photodetector
This chapter covers recent advances in the development of nanostructure-based material technologies to benefit next-generation electro-optical (EO) and infrared (IR) sensor and imager applications. Nanostructured materials can now be integrated into a variety of technological platforms, offering novel optoelectrical properties that greatly enhance device performance in many practical applications. Use of novel carbon nanotube (CNT) based materials has enabled new approaches for applying nanostructure design methodologies that can offer enhanced performance for low-cost bolometers for IR detection and imaging applications. We will discuss the development of carbon nanostructure based infrared detectors and arrays, including concepts that will provide high performance, high frame rate, and uncooled microbolometers for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) band detection. In addition, nanostructured antireflection (AR) coatings are being developed that significantly enhance transmission over a broad spectrum, providing substantial improvements in device performance compared to conventional thin film AR coatings. These nanostructured AR coatings have been demonstrated over visible to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. In this chapter, we discuss both theoretical and measured results of these diverse nanostructure technologies to advance sensing performance over a wide range of spectral bands for defense, space, and commercial applications.
Part of the book: Nanorods and Nanocomposites