Gestational hypertension (GH) is one of the entities of the hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), a major cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Also, the HDP have been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Thus, women who develop GH or preeclampsia (PE) are at increased risk of hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke in later life. An ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) takes an important role in diagnosing of hypertension in pregnancy. Also, it has been shown that ABPM had higher accuracy in the prediction of GH, premature childbirth and low birth weight, compared with the conventional blood pressure (BP) measurements. In addition, we have found that non-dipping pattern of BP is very highly related with worse pregnancy outcome in a term of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction. Also, it is associated with worse maternal hemodynamics, more impaired systolic function and more pronounced cardiac remodeling compared to women with GH and dipping pattern of BP. This review aimed to explore the (a) current classifications of the HDP; (b) pathogenesis of GH and PE; (c) physiological changes of BP and maternal hemodynamics in pregnancy; and (d) pathophysiological changes of BP and maternal cardiac function, especially in a term on BP pattern.
Part of the book: Blood Pressure