Biosensors are devices that integrate a variety of technologies, containing biology, electronics, chemistry, physics, medicine, informatics, and correlated technology. Biosensors act as transducer with a biorecognition element and transform a biochemical reaction on the transducer surface directly into a measurable signal. The biosensors have the advantages of rapid analysis, low cost, and high precision, which are widely used in many fields, such as medical care, disease diagnosis, food detection, environmental monitoring, and fermentation industry. The enzyme biosensors show excellent application value owing to the development of fixed technology and the characteristics of specific identification, which can be combined with point-of-care testing (POCT) technology. POCT technology is attracting more and more attention as a very effective method of clinic detection. We outline the recent advances of biosensors in this chapter, focusing on the principle and classification of enzyme biosensor, immobilization method of biorecognition layers, and fabrication of amperometric biosensors, as well as the applications of POCT. A summary of glucose biosensor development and integrated setups is included. The latest applications of enzyme biosensors in diagnostic applications focusing on POCT of biomarkers in real samples were described.
Part of the book: MEMS Sensors