Atrial fibrillation (AF), which causes severe health problems, is a multi-factor disorder and is increasing day by day. AF is known to be one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias in clinical practice. AF can also be described as a cardiac dysrhythmia that causes severe cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AF is known as an independent risk factor for death and it occurs a significant risk of morbidity due to stroke. There are many diseases that contribute to the development of AF. Diseases such as aging, heart failure, heart valve disorders, myocardial infarction, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are important factors in the development of structural AF. It is a known fact that AF prevalence increases with age. The mechanism underlying of AF is not fully understood, but genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. There have been many studies aimed at investigating the genetic basis of AF, especially in recent years. In these studies, many mutations and variants have emerged which are identified as genetic risk factors in the development of AF. Identification of gene polymorphisms that play a role in the development of AF will be an important guide in the development of new therapies for the treatment of this condition.
Part of the book: Cardiac Arrhythmias
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide containing 37 amino acids. CGRP is a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, which has protective mechanisms in physiological and pathological conditions. When released, CGRP is a peptide that is active in the cerebral circulation and interacts with the sympathetic nervous system. CGRP is very important in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, CGRP, which is also associated with pain processes, has an important role in inflammation. Calcitonin-associated polypeptide alpha (CALCA), one of the isoforms of CGRP, functions through the wide CGRP receptors. Polymorphisms occurring in the CALCA gene are associated with diseases such as ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease, ovarian cancer, bone mineral density, migraine, schizophrenia, manic depression, and essential hypertension. In this section, the information was given about CALCA gene, which is one of its isoforms of CGRP. In addition, CALCA gene polymorphisms and diseases associated with these gene polymorphisms have also been addressed.
Part of the book: Polypeptide