The transgenic approach and precise editing of specific loci in the genome have diverse practical uses in animal biotechnology. Recent advances in genome-editing technology, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) have helped to generate highly valuable and quality-improved poultry. The production of transgenic and genome-edited birds mainly depends on primordial germ cells (PGCs), which are the progenitor cells of gametes, due to the unique system that is quite different from the mammalian system. This chapter introduces the basic physiology of avian PGCs and the latest PGC-mediated methodologies in transgenesis and genome editing of birds. Based on these techniques, future applications of precisely genome-modulated poultry are discussed to provide opportunities and benefits for humans.
Part of the book: Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science