Nowadays, direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have been used for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment leading to cure in 90–95% of non-cirrhotic patients depending on genotype, treatment experience, and regimen used. It was observed rates of antiviral response above 90% in compensated cirrhotic patients that should be treated for long time and/or ribavirin may be required. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, and insulin resistance are increasing worldwide and further contribute to hepatic steatosis and have long been recognized as a cause of lipid deposition in the liver. These factors affect the rate of antiviral response to interferon-based therapy, but it seems not impact DAA treatment. The effect of HCV eradication on hepatic steatosis and progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma warrants further study in the era of direct-acting antivirals. Other factors that could be related to increase liver damage are vitamin D and associated polymorphisms. Patients with low concentration of total vitamin D [25(OH)D] presented high degree of fibrosis and high values of total cholesterol and triglycerides. In this chapter, we review the challenges and metabolic pathology associated with HCV infection and, discuss the influence of some metabolic factors which can cause liver damage.
Part of the book: Hepatitis C
Latin America includes Mexico, the islands of the Caribbean and Central and South America, which possess a rich cultural and natural heritage. A narrative literature review was made to determine epidemiological hepatitis B and C profiles in high risk groups in Latin America, such as, drug users, hemophiliacs, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Using data from international databases that disseminate published quality studies. All studies with desired information regarding site and study population were included. It was observed that HBV prevalence diminished in several groups, probably due to implementation of HBV vaccination in various Latin America Countries (LACs). On the other hand, HCV prevalence is high among high risk groups compared to general population, but different values were observed in LAC, probably due to different access to education programs, assays evaluated, population size and type of recruitment. Due to chronicity of HBV and HCV, it is important to increase access to diagnosis, HBV vaccination and implementation of education programs to high risk groups to diminish burden of these infections.
Part of the book: Public Health