Malawi continues to face unprecedented challenges imposed by extreme weather events—drought in particular. Because the economy is heavily dependent on climate-sensitive agriculture, Malawi is highly vulnerable to extreme drought events. Faced with a growing number of extreme drought events, the government of Malawi is determined to implement weather index insurance as part and parcel of its nationwide disaster risk mitigation strategy. This study seeks to interrogate and highlight the obstacles that have hampered successful implementation and development of weather index insurance in Malawi beyond the pilot phase. The study draws on a few examples to demonstrate other countries’ successful experience with weather index insurance as a drought risk mitigation tool. The study concludes by highlighting important lessons that could help the government of Malawi to re-think the next phase of development of weather index insurance program as an effective risk protection strategy against extreme drought events.
Part of the book: Extreme Weather
This paper seeks to draw attention to the significance of integrating hygiene practices to HIV and AIDs programs in Southern African Developing Countries (SADC)—a region severely burdened by the disease. Integrating hygiene, in particular the habit of handwashing with soap and water, can reduce mortality rates and improve the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA)—akin to Florence Nightingale’s moment (1850s). The paper uses survey data attained from PLWHA (South Africa) as case point to provide empirical views by PLWHA regarding their views and perceptions about hygiene practices and significance. Key observations are that: PLWHA lack sufficient knowledge on handwashing practices and apparently ignorant about their exposure and extent of vulnerability to opportunistic infections. This paper concludes by making a call for integration of hygiene (especially handwashing with soap and water) as part and parcel of HIV and AIDS programs as this will positively impact livelihoods of PLWHA in SADC. The paper ends continuous monitoring of WASH programs across SADC new 90-90-90 water-sanitation-hygiene indicator scoreboard necessary for continuous monitoring of WASH programs across SADC and equally other developing countries.
Part of the book: The Relevance of Hygiene to Health in Developing Countries