Choledochal cysts are congenital bile duct anomalies. These cystic dilatations of the biliary tree can involve the extrahepatic biliary radicles, the intrahepatic biliary radicles, or both. The etiology remains unknown, but choledochal cysts are likely to be congenital in nature. Cyst excision is the definitive treatment of choice for choledochal cyst because of the high morbidity and high risk of carcinoma after internal drainage, a commonly used treatment in the past. CDC is a congenital anomaly involving cystic dilatation of various ducts of biliary tree. The precise etiology of extrahepatic cysts continues to remain unclear. The most commonly accepted theory is an anomalous pancreatobiliary duct junction (APBDJ) and abnormal function of the sphincter of Oddi. Proper imaging plays an essential role in preoperative planning. Proper diagnosis evaluation and management is essential for optimal management. Type I cysts are the most frequently encountered. Choledochal cysts can have variable presentations. Hepatobiliary ultrasound and MRCP are the present day standards for imaging; early diagnosis should be the norm to avoid possible late complications of cholangitis, cirrhosis, hepaticolithiasis and spontaneous perforation. Excision of the cyst with hepaticojejunostomy is the best approach.
Part of the book: Gastrointestinal Surgery