Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite and the etiological agent of a vector-borne disease known as leishmaniasis. This neglected tropical disease exhibits high morbidity and mortality putting at risk people from multiple countries worldwide. It is endemic in 97 countries and 700,000–1 million new cases are estimated to occur each year. Leishmaniasis management is very challenging, the symptoms are non-pathognomonic (in both human and canine populations) and the treatments are associated with significant toxicity. Therefore, the need for detection in symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts is important to tackle the dissemination of infection, increasing the need for highly specific biomarkers. In this complex the available disease biomarkers will be addressed in a retrospective manner, focusing on their development from laboratory to their direct use in clinical settings.
Part of the book: Biomarker