Classically, the development and launching of a new drug is a highly time consuming, tedious and expensive process involving following fundamental steps: (1) Identification of cause of Disease and Search for target site. (2) Search and Optimisation of active compound, that is, the Drug Lead. (3) Testing of Drug in Animals (pre-clinical phase). (4) Clinical Trials. (5) Approval of New Drug by Competent authority and availability of the drug. Drug discovery and development process involves around 10–15 years of investigation period and incredibly high cost and investment. This process also involves participation of experts from various disciplines and fields. Therefore, the new approaches are obligatory to be developed not only to expedite the process but also to ensure the launch of safer and effective drug. Over this background, the importance of experimental wisdom and holistic approach is intensifying to offer good base as an attractive discovery engine. Natural product drug discovery, ethno-pharmacology, traditional and attractive medicines are re-emerging as new strategic options. In the past decade, the number of new chemical entity (NCG) in drug development channel is declining markedly might have led to the rekindling of interest in emergence of natural product as new drug leads. The novel natural products can be optimised on the basis of their biological activities using highly sophisticated combinatorial biosynthetic techniques, microbial genomes and screening process.
Part of the book: Molecular Insight of Drug Design