This chapter discusses the use of bioremediation and phytoremediation coupled with electrokinetics and presents the elements contributing to the success of the remediation process. A deep discussion and an overview of the current advancement in the biotechnologies are outlined in details. Innovative solutions for challenges facing the field application of the new technology are presented and new directions are proposed. A careful review for contaminated site conditions including pH, temperature, and other factors influencing the behavior of microbial community are presented. Great deal of discussion is around overcoming the adverse effect of electrolysis reactions, which is a by-product of electrokinetics. The discussion includes prolonging the survival of the indigenous bacteria, increase of microbial enzyme secretion, improvement of the indigenous bacteria metabolism, and exploration of metagenomics resources from soil biota. The challenges facing the field application of bioremediation and phytoremediation including the delivery of the electron donors and/or acceptors and nutrients to microorganisms involved in the biodegradation, particularly in clay soils, which has very low hydraulic conductivity, is discussed. The use of electrokinetics in biostimulation application to enhanced degradation of organic pollutant is reviewed. The implementation of bioaugmentation in bioremediation coupled with electrokinetics to enhance the outcome of bioremediation is presented.
Part of the book: Advances in Bioremediation and Phytoremediation