Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family that includes cauliflower, sprouts, broccoli and cabbage. Plants of the brassica family are rich sources of biologically active substance. The beneficial effects of brassica vegetables on human health have been somewhat linked to phytochemicals. They prevent oxidative stress, induce detoxification enzymes, stimulate immune system and decrease the risk of cancers. Crucifers are the important winter crops grown widely in tropical and temperate regions of the world, giving yield of 50.7 million tons. It is cultivated around the year over an area of 8263 hectares in Karnataka with production of 23.63 tons per hectare. Cauliflower and cabbage are the most common crops throughout the world. Diamondback moth (DBM) caused losses of about 16 million dollars by causing a 2.5% damage annually. There are many insect pests that attacked these crops and most common are diamondback moth, tobacco cutworm, aphid, jassid, cabbage worm and many others. The most important of these insect pests is the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella also called cabbage moth that belongs to Plutellidae. There are many controlled strategies including chemical control, biological control, physical control and many other methods. This study contributes to the literature offering understandings about the insect pests of brassica and their best management techniques.
Part of the book: Brassica Germplasm
Pollination is the fundamental requirement for healthier fruit set. More than 90% of flowering plant species in the hot and humid regions required pollination. Many plants species required animal pollination. Among these animals, insects play a vital role in pollination, and among the major insect pollinators, hymenopterans, honeybees, and bumblebees are regarded as the best pollinators of the crops around the world. Declining population of these important pollinators day by day is a major threat, and this declining is due to a variety of stressors. Among these possible reasons including environmental conditions, parasites, predators, malnutrition, and diseases, many researchers pointed finger at pesticides as playing a major role especially neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoids move in the environment and can be found throughout the areas where they are not applied. Neonicotinoids can drift offsite directly exposing bees and contaminate nontargeted areas when applied as spray. During plant uptake, neonicotinoid spreads through plant tissues and disrupts the physiology of pollen eaters, nectar feeders, and the insects that feed upon plant tissues. Therefore, the use of neonicotinoid is the major reason for the decline of bees in the world. So it is requested to all farmers and researchers to please find ways to kill pests not pollinators.
Part of the book: Entomology