The chapter will present the classification of the types of modern terrorism and describe scenarios and probabilistic models of ordinary, technological, and the so-called intelligent terrorism that are distinguished by their triggering events, propagation modes, damaging factors, probabilities, and consequences. A comparative assessment of these three types of terrorism is presented. Dynamic three-sided models allow assessing the situation from standpoints of terrorists and law enforcement agencies, the administration of the complex engineering system, and analyzing actions and counteractions of various sides involved. A new comprehensive approach to ensuring complex engineering system security is described. This approach is focused not only on the development of protection barriers and safeguards against predetermined list of design-basis scenarios of terrorist attacks but also on increasing the system’s resilience toward beyond design-basis attack scenarios.
Part of the book: Probabilistic Modeling in System Engineering
The chapter presents the results of research carried out in Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that were focused on validation and application of design diagrams, methods and systems for measuring stresses under the modes of Tokamak instillation cooling and management of electromagnetic fields during startups. The examples of tensometric systems and results of measurements of stresses under cryogenic temperatures and strong magnetic fields as well as results of analysis of the states of stresses and strains of structurally heterogeneous components of load-bearing and conductive structures are presented. Operation conditions and limit states of Tokamak components are considered. Results of research summarized in the chapter demonstrate the correctness of the adopted design solutions, which result in a relatively low level of local stresses in the load-bearing components of the thermonuclear installations.
Part of the book: Nuclear Materials