Controlling a brain-computer interface (BCI) is a difficult task that requires extensive training. Particularly in the case of motor imagery BCIs, users may need several training sessions before they learn how to generate desired brain activity and reach an acceptable performance. A typical training protocol for such BCIs includes execution of a motor imagery task by the user, followed by presentation of an extending bar or a moving object on a computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of a visual feedback that resembles human actions, the effect of human factors such as confidence and motivation, and the role of embodiment in the learning process of a motor imagery task. Our results from a series of experiments in which users BCI-operated a humanlike android robot confirm that realistic visual feedback can induce a sense of embodiment, which promotes a significant learning of the motor imagery task in a short amount of time. We review the impact of humanlike visual feedback in optimized modulation of brain activity by the BCI users.
Part of the book: Evolving BCI Therapy