Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a progressive autoimmune disease associated with widespread organ damage that can eventually cause death. Worldwide prevalence of SLE is difficult to report mainly due to difficulty in diagnosis as a result of its heterogeneous nature and nonspecific protean manifestations. Currently, circulating anti-DNA antibodies are the most specific diagnostic biomarkers for SLE where many detection assays are being employed in clinical practice. However, the diagnostic value of these techniques is challenged by the detection of only subpopulations of these antibodies with varying sensitivity and specificity. This is mainly attributed to differences in the antigen source and presentation and in the employed reaction conditions. This chapter will thoroughly discuss the technology, advantages, and limitations of each assay in addition to a special focus on the recently developed diagnostic technologies and novel biomarkers. Moreover, SLE will be presented as a disease model highlighting the importance of personalized medicine.
Part of the book: Rapid Test