Dealing with complexities and uncertainties in the design and planning of human-engineered systems such as urban systems is crucial. When the stakes are so high and consequences of alternative actions are so uncertain, a systematic consideration of complexities and uncertainties is warranted. This chapter describes a system-of-systems (SoS) framework to represent the interdependencies and dynamics among human and engineered systems. The framework comprises a set of tools including network theory, system dynamics, and exploratory modeling and analysis. Based on the framework, three case studies are presented. The first case analyzes urban systems’ vulnerabilities to climate change using the context of the 2004 hurricane in South Florida, USA. The second case is a comparison of the performance of two design options for natural-gas powered electricity power plant. The third case is a system analysis for supporting an economic revival in the US Midwest City. The applications reveal information about (1) critical infrastructure nodes, (2) robustness of decisions under uncertainty, and (3) dynamics relevant to support decision-making.
Part of the book: System of System Failures