In the past decades, optical imaging field has been developing rapidly. Noninvasive imaging enabled by microendoscopes has become a promising tool for early cancer detection and imaging-guided surgery. In this chapter, we will mainly introduce most advances in the miniaturized microendoscope development, including photoacoustic, confocal fluorescence, multiphoton fluorescence, second-harmonic generation (SHG) label-free imaging, wide-field fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle-based Raman spectroscopy. Enabled by the frontier micromachining techniques, micro-opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS)-based novel microendoscopes with various imaging modalities have been prototyped and further translated into clinics. The working principle of representative microendoscopes and optical imaging modalities will be introduced in detail.
Part of the book: Advanced Endoscopy