Adolescence is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood. Depending on female gonads’ function and on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis activation, results in teenager’s body growth, in secondary sex characteristics’ development and finally in their reproductive potential. In adolescence, the negative feedback of gonadal steroids on gonadotropins is disturbed. Teenagers presenting with dysfunctional bleedings are usually suspected of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts or endometriosis and require gynecologic examination, evaluation, and hormone therapy. It is of great importance both for teenagers and their parents to understand that hormone therapy is the first line treatment for bleeding disorders in these ages. A detailed medical history is necessary to determine the appropriate treatment plan. Primary care includes the detection of adolescents with acute or chronic pelvic pain that may be associated with endometriosis or other pathologies like mullerian duct abnormalities, imperforate hymen, ovarian teratomas, ovarian torsion, and vaginal absence or atresia. Mullerian duct abnormalities are associated with increased rates of unexplained infertility, spontaneous abortions, and pathological conditions of pregnancy. Specialists, should help teenagers in getting familiar to their bodies, to their sexuality, inform them about the sexually transmitted diseases, and safety options including vaccination and guide them in contraception issues.
Part of the book: Family Planning
The cancer of the vulva is a rare disease with a positive association to poor developing countries. However, the incidence of vulvar cancer in situ nearly doubled in the last two decades and remained relatively stable. The main reason for this increased incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women younger than 45 years is due to changes in sexual behavior, first intercourse at early age, multiple sexual partners, and sexually transmitted diseases that were increasing progressively. Furthermore, it is strongly associated with smoking and the increased incidence of HPV infection. The occurrence of early symptoms of VIN-like pruritus vulvae, pain, and lichen sclerosus led to early diagnosis to perform the adequate treatment. VIN tends to appear multifocal, while most invasive cancers are unilateral located and appeared with well-circumscribed lesions.
Part of the book: Depigmentation