One in three people in the world is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 10% of infected individuals will develop the disease at any time in their lifetime. Today, despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the biggest challenges in global public health, and low and middle-income countries are the most affected. The risk for developing the disease depends on endogenous, exogenous, and environmental factors. Among the most relevant conditions that could precipitate TB development are those that affect the host-immune response. HIV infection increase about 20 times the risk of TB, and other more common conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and smoking, also contribute in a big way to the TB pandemic. Global TB control programs in order to achieve the disease control objectives must integrate strategies that have a direct impact on risk factors, not only at an individual level but also on a public health policy level. Here, we review some of the most important risk factors for the development of TB, as one of the most relevant ways for TB control.
Part of the book: Tuberculosis