An endoleak type 2 (EL2) is a relatively frequent event after an EVAR but 30–35% of EL2 can become progressive, which can cause a loss in the important sealing zone of the stent graft. Diagnosis is made by three-phase CT angiogram or by contrast-enhanced duplex scan. EL2 should be treated if the aortic sac grows more than 5 mm in 6 months time. The first suitable treatment is the endovascular approach with embolization of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) or lumbar arteries. Paravertebral puncture, under CT navigation to embolize the lumbar artery or a part of the aortic sac with the EL2, is another alternative. If the endovascular treatment is not successful in 2–3 times, we should consider a surgical approach. The operative approach can be a laparoscopic or an open operation: the laparoscopic approach allows us to clip the IMA and lumbar arteries. The open surgery involves laparotomy, ligation of the IMA, and endoaneurysmorrhaphy (suture of lumbar artery origins from inside) and then the suture of the aortic sac tightly around the stent graft in situ. The aortic occlusion balloon should be inserted below the renal arteries prior to open surgery. The surgical procedures have good outcomes and should be considered when the endovascular treatment is unsuccessful.
Part of the book: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm