This chapter describes Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) and their signal characteristics, beginning with an overview of Global Positioning System (GPS) architecture and describing its three primary segments: control, space, and user segments. After that, it addresses the GPS modernization program including the new civilian and military signals and their significance. It continues by outlining the GPS signal characteristics and the sources of GPS measurement error. GPS receivers as well are briefly described. Then, it gives an overview of the GLONASS and describes its modernization program. Additionally, it delves into many aspects the GLONASS, including GLONASS signal characteristics, the GLONASS radio frequency (RF) plan, pseudorandom (PR) ranging codes, and the intra-system interference navigation message. Finally, GPS and GLONASS are compared to highlight the advantages of combined GPS and GLONASS measurements over the GPS-only measurements.
Part of the book: Multifunctional Operation and Application of GPS