From theoretical standpoint, it is difficult to analytically build a general theory and physical principles that critically describe the mechanical behaviour of granular systems. There are many substantial gaps in understanding the mechanical principles that govern these particulate systems. In this chapter, based on a two-dimensional soft particle discrete element method (DEM), a numerical approach is developed to investigate the vertical penetration of a non-rotating and rotating projectile into a granular system. The model outcomes reveal that there is a linear proportion between the projectile’s impact velocity and its penetration downward displacement. Moreover, depending on the rotation direction, there is a significant deviation of the x-coordinate of the final stopping point of a rotating projectile from that of its original impact point. For negative angular velocities, a deviation to the right occurs while a left deviation has been recorded for positive angular velocities.
Part of the book: Ballistics