Part of the book: From Turbine to Wind Farms
The ongoing evolution of electric power systems (EPS), especially distribution systems within the EPS structure, is driven by the implementation of the smart grid framework. This requires new approaches and technologies to continue ensuring a reliable and secure supply to end users. Fluctuating output from solar photovoltaic and wind plants can cause voltage and power variations in the feeders. In the power grid framework, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are recognized to be an invaluable aid in ensuring the secure operation and stability of transmission systems. The synchrophasor technique requires a high-accuracy time stamping of all the measurements within the analyzed power system area. It must be emphasized that the harmonic injection from power electronic components such as fluorescent lighting, computers, and power inverters of motors and generators can increase total harmonic distortion (THD) levels on distribution feeders and modify the conventional patterns of voltage and current signals. Therefore, what is vital for the functional reliability of synchronous measurements is the implementation of measurement algorithms, which can realize high-accuracy measurements, both in quasi-static and dynamic EPS operating conditions. This article presents the results of software simulations and hardware tests of measurement algorithms that meet the requirements of the IEEE C37.118™-2011 Standard.
Part of the book: System Reliability