This chapter is aimed at evaluating learner’s health risk based on the concentration of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn) in soil/dust from playgrounds/classrooms in selected primary schools in Lagos State. Samples were divided into four groups based on the density of the locations. Concentration of toxic metals in samples were determined by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFA-EX7) technique after microwave digestion. The result showed that some of the heavy metals in the soil were higher than permissible limits set by DPR, FEPA and WHO. The soil/dust were contaminated with Cr, Cd and Pb but Mn was within permissible limit. Due to exposure to playground soil and classroom dust, hazardous index (HI) for non-carcinogenic/carcinogenic risk in children was estimated. HI value indicated that the heavy metal pollution may pose no obvious non-cancer health risk to children learning in such schools. However, children via ingestion pathway are exposed to the greatest carcinogenic risk followed by the inhalation pathway. The cancer risk for learners was found to be 3.2 × 10−2 (1 in 31 individuals). Hence, there is need for local environmental authorities to be warned about the potential health risks caused by heavy metals in playground/classroom.
Part of the book: Heavy Metals