Exposure of zebrafish to the synthetic estrogen 17-α ethynylestradiol (EE2) has been shown to cause a number of detrimental effects, including but not limited to feminization of male fish, reduced reproductive capabilities, and impaired embryonic development. This paper systematically reviews the effects of five environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2 on 12 measurements that are commonly selected when studying the effects of EE2 on zebrafish. Concentrations of 0.1 ng EE2/L, 1 ng EE2/L, 3 ng EE2/L, 10 ng EE2/L, 25 ng EE2/L, and 100 ng EE2/L were reviewed for their effects on sex ratio, vitellogenin induction, gonad morphology, spawning success, survival, bodily malformation, length/weight, swim-up success, fecundity, fertilization success, hatching success, and the reversibility of aforementioned effects. A greater occurrence of effects was observed as the dose of EE2 was increased, starting at exposure levels of 1 ng EE2/L. For exposures of 3 and 10 ng EE2/L, negative effects on sex ratio, morphology, and reproductive capabilities were reversible after zebrafish were able to recover in clean water for a period of time. Data for zebrafish exposed to 100 ng EE2/L was limited, as this concentration severely decreased survival.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Zebrafish Researches