Effective mitochondria bioenergetics requires the proper functioning of various intra-organelle dehydrogenases. By providing pyridine and flavin adenine dinucleotides to the electron chain, or Acyl-CoA for the reactions of the tris-carboxylic acid cycle, or the acylation of fatty acids to undergo β-oxidation, these dehydrogenases preside to the organelle production of ATP, required for a variety of cellular functions under physiological conditions. The operation of the various dehydrogenases is mainly regulated by hormones through changes in intra-mitochondrial cation levels and ratios, namely Ca2+ and Mg2+. Dysregulation of specific dehydrogenases under pathological conditions results in marked changes in the energetic level of the organelle and ultimately the cell. The present review will attempt to highlight the role of the main mitochondrial dehydrogenases and their regulation, and provide a general assessment of their dysfunction and associated consequences under some of the most common human pathologies.
Part of the book: Secondary Metabolites