Erythropoietin (EPO), recognized as a tissue protective agent, can trigger anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic processes to delimit injury and promote repair by the binding tissue-protective receptor. However, only at a high dosage can EPO exert tissue protective effects, which simultaneously elicits some severe erythropoiesis-related side effects. Thus, the structural modification of EPO for the prevention of side effects is undoubtedly required. This chapter reviewed the development from EPO to its peptide derivatives with tissue protective efficacy. We also discussed are the therapeutic effects and limitations of each peptide, signaling pathways involved and the benefits for translation.
Part of the book: Polypeptide