The positron annihilation, experimental and theoretical results obtained for bismuth are presented, mainly concerning the open volume defects created during compression and dry sliding. Positron lifetime in vacancy clusters increases with the size of the cluster; however, it saturates at the value of about 0.42 ns already for six vacancies in a cluster. Similar values were resolved in the positron lifetime spectra of bismuth samples exposed to dry sliding. Detection of the subsurface zone in bismuth exposed to dry sliding reveals exponential decay of vacancy clusters concentration with the depth increase from the worn surface. The high strain of about 70% was evaluated in the layer adjoined the worn surface The temperature of recrystallization obtained from the isochronal measurements of annihilation line shape parameter was equal about 90°C, and the activation energy for grain migration is about 0.84 ± 0.11 eV.
Part of the book: Bismuth