Part of the book: Applied Bioremediation
This chapter provides an overview and discusses analytical strategies for metallic ions determination using solid phase extraction. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a much-used technique for extraction and/or concentration of complex samples, so that the analytes present in low concentration were detected mainly using chromatographic methods. However, in recent years, this technique has been widely used in the development of methodologies for metallic ions determination in the deferential samples. This technique shows simplicity and rapidity comparing with other conventional techniques, liquid–liquid extraction, cloud point extraction and others. Solid phase extraction procedures become even more interesting when commercial adsorbents are exchanged for others with higher adsorptive capacity, selectivity, flexibility, economy and low environmental impacts. For this purpose, some inorganic, organic and several natural adsorbents are used. New approaches to obtain adsorbent materials from natural sources such as fungi, bacteria, industrial residues and composting materials have received attention. These materials have been used in the development of analytical methods with varied proposals, such as preconcentration or speciation of metal ions.
Part of the book: Heavy Metals