Performance issues of vegetable oil or bio-based oil drilling fluids are generally inferior as compared to synthetic based drilling fluids. This chapter focuses largely on thermal conductivity and rheological properties of bio-based oil drilling fluid as its core issues. Unstable drilling fluids do not only incur in downtime for maintenance, but it indirectly affects production capacity as well. To overcome these issues, nanoparticles acts as additives to improve the thermo-physical traits of bio-based oil drilling fluid. The scope of this chapter focuses on dispersion of graphene oxide at very low concentration, namely 25, 50 and 100 ppm, to improve the thermal conductivity and rheological properties of bio-based oil drilling fluid. The data obtained from thermal conductivity and rheological experimental works were validated with various thermal conductivity and rheological models.
Part of the book: Drilling
The abundance of biomass in Malaysia creates an avenue for growth of bio-economic sector through the research and development (R&D) activities on the biochar production. Biochar that is described as a carbonaceous material derived from the thermochemical process at temperature of usually lower than 700°C is promising due to its applicability in wider range of applications, such as in soil amendment (fertilizer) and as a low-cost adsorbent for the pollution remediation, apart from minimizing the solid waste disposal problems. Therefore, this chapter discusses the current trends on various production techniques of biochar from both the lignocellulosic (plantation based waste materials) and non-lignocellulosic sources, as well as the physiochemical characteristics of the resulting biochar. In addition, overview of the biochar industry in Malaysia is presented in this chapter. Lastly, recap of standardization and legislation particularly related to the biochar utilization as a soil amendment agent is included to grasp readers’ attention prior to the large scale applications.
Part of the book: Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety