Industrial wastewater generally contains significant amounts of toxic heavy metals that cause a problem of contamination to the environment. In this chapter, the use of polyelectrolytic waste as new coagulant-flocculating-chelating agents in the separation of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr by a coagulation-flocculation process is discussed. The isoelectric point (ζ = 0) of the residual water was reached with a dose of 2.5 mg chitosan and observed a clarification kinetics = 187.49% T/h, sediment kinetics = 93.96 mm/h and an efficiency of 85% in the removal of heavy metals. With the SEM-EDS analysis and the determination of heavy metals in the treated water, it is shown that the functional groups that chitosan has in its structure have the following order of affinity for the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater model: Cr = 27.64% > Ni = 21.96% > Pb = 21.28% > Zn = 14.68% > Cu = 10.96% > Cd = 3.35% > Ca = 0.12%.
Part of the book: Heavy Metals
The turbidity and color of the water are mainly caused by colloidal particles. These particles remain in suspension for a long time and can even pass through a very fine filter medium, since they do not have a tendency to agglomerate. Due to this, polyelectrolytes such as chitosan have been used in coagulation-flocculation processes because they dissociate into charged species in solution and these contribute to charges or dissociable groups which are covalently bound to its structure. With the zeta potential measurements (ζ) vs. pH and particle size, the ideal dose of bio-polyelectrolyte was determined with which, the isoelectric point (IEP) was reached, generating electroneutrality in the system, removing 92% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results discussed here represent a sustainable alternative to the water reuse and sanitation problem of the fish processing industry. The use of bio-polyelectrolytes offers that the by-products obtained from the coagulation-flocculation process can be reused and recovered for other uses.
Part of the book: Water Quality