Trace metals including nanosilver in our aquatic environment are on the increase in part due to discharge from municipal sewage and indirectly from leaching from abandoned mine tailings and from sludge spread on farmland. The presence of the trace metals will likely impact negatively on the aquatic environment in excess of background levels. This review reports on the concentration of trace metals in municipal sewage in Limpopo province and the impact on fish and human health. Human health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated fish are discussed. The presence of silver is also highlighted and the remedial actions that are available in reducing the health risks including positive outcomes are discussed. The source of silver may be from the use of silver nanoproducts. There is a need for a paradigm shift of zero effluent discharge and start with harvesting of metals from the sewage effluent and sludge in order to protect the environment.
Part of the book: Sewage