Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with kidney disease, with prevalence several times greater than in the general population. Anticoagulation agents are used to prevent thromboembolic events as a consequence of AF. Several randomized trials have established the efficacy of antithrombotic drugs for preventing stroke in patients with AF, with both antiplatelet agents and oral anticoagulants showing benefit. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients have known platelet defects/dysfunction and also receive heparin during their dialysis treatment, which contributes to their overall coagulopathy. Warfarin being vitamin-K antagonist can augment calciphylaxis in patients with ESKD. Taken together, formal anticoagulation use in patients with ESKD may confer additional risk that is not appreciated in patients without kidney disease. In particular, patients on new oral anticoagulants show excess morbidity and mortality from bleeding when compared to warfarin.
Part of the book: Anticoagulant Drugs