Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The most common form of CHD is the myocardial infarction. It is responsible for over 15% of mortality each year, among the vast majority of people suffering from non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) than ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) is higher in men in all age-specific groups than women. Although the incidence of MI is decreased in the industrialized nations partly because of improved health systems and implementation of effective public health strategies, nevertheless the rates are surging in the developing countries such as South Asia, parts of Latin America, and Eastern Europe. The modifiable risk factors represent over 90% of the risk for acute MI. The risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, psychosocial stressors, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and a diet low in fruits and vegetables were strongly associated with acute MI.
Part of the book: Myocardial Infarction
This chapter gives clinicians the tools to use therapeutic carbohydrate restriction as a dietary intervention for type 2 diabetes patients. The chapter is divided into three section, each addressing a different aspect of therapeutic carbohydrate restriction (TCR). Section 1 delves into the background of carbohydrate restriction, nutrition physiology, the three levels of therapeutic carbohydrate restriction physiological, and metabolic rationale for using TCR to treat the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Section two explains how to start TCR in a patient population. It goes over which patients are good candidates for TCR and which ones should be approached with caution when implementing this dietary change and explains the importance of baseline assessments. Section three spells out how to administer and manage TCR in a clinical setting. It covers behavior change support, patient education on TCR principles, medication adjustments during the early stages of the intervention, and anticipating and treating common side effects.
Part of the book: Novel Pathogenesis and Treatments for Cardiovascular Disease