The chapter provides the analysis of the behaviour of Mach Zehnder interferometer waveguide (MZIW) sensing structure and establishes the general design principles. Photonics interferometers have been widely used because of their highly sensitive detection technique. The present study is based on the MZIW structure for sensing application and deals with interferometer single-mode transmission. Theoretically, short wavelength and high difference in index (Δη) results in the low depth of the evanescence wave and increase in sensitivity. MZIW under consideration is very small in size hence it is very difficult to guide the light into waveguide. The output monitor detection sensitivity of the entire MZI structure depends on light-guiding efficiency. To maintain minimum losses at various micro-branches of the entire MZIW structure, effective light propagation is important and it is a critical parameter of the entire interferometer. Various tests have been carried out to study the effects of the Y branch angle variation on light guiding into the MZIW structure especially in measurement application.
Part of the book: Emerging Waveguide Technology