During the past decade, bats were shown to a major source for new viruses. Among them are well known coronaviruses such as SRAS or MERS but also Ebola. At the same time, no direct infection from bat to human has been demonstrated. The dynamic of transmission of bat-borne viruses is therefore a complex process involving both sylvatic and urban cycles, and intermediate hosts not always identified. The threat potentially exists, and drivers must be sought for man-made environmental changes. Anthropized environments are mosaic landscapes attracting at the same place different bat species usually not found together. Anthropized landscape is also characterized by a higher density of bat-borne viruses. The threat of new bat-borne virus outbreaks has greatly increased in the recent years along with media anthropization and the extremely rapid deforestation process. Deforestation could be a major contributing factor to new viral emergences due to more frequent contacts of livestock and humans with bats possibly containing infectious viruses.
Part of the book: Bats
In China, the malaria elimination program was launched in 2010 with the objective to eliminate this disease by 2020. Large-scale malaria control and elimination actions have been conducted with significant success since inception of the nationwide program. The incidence of locally acquired malaria has declined sharply along with the concomitant decrease of malaria-endemic areas from 762 counties reporting malaria in 2010 to just two counties adjacent to border areas (Yunnan, China-Myanmar and Tibet, China-India) in 2016. In total, 1723 counties (79%) and 134 prefectures (52%) had completed the malaria elimination internal assessment by the end of 2016. The year 2017 was the first year without report of indigenous malaria cases throughout the country. Hence, this chapter is meant to share the lessons learned from malaria elimination in China benefiting countries on the way to malaria elimination.
Part of the book: Towards Malaria Elimination