Hepatocellular carcinoma (also termed hepatocarcinoma) is the third cancer-related cause of death worldwide. To our knowledge, markers such as α-fetoprotein display poor performance in the early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of hepatocarcinoma. MicroRNAs are an evolutionarily conserved class of small noncoding single-stranded RNA typically consisting of 18–24 nucleotides. They have been reported to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes via reversely regulating gene expression. Recent evidence has revealed that microRNAs, especially in body fluids such as the blood and urine, display important diagnostic and prognostic potential for hepatocarcinoma. Here, we reviewed currently available data on microRNAs and hepatocarcinoma, with emphasis on the biogenesis and function of microRNAs and their potential diagnostic and prognostic value for hepatocarcinoma. We also discussed the clinical utility perspectives of microRNAs in hepatocarcinoma and possible challenges.
Part of the book: Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most common carcinogen of aflatoxin, which contaminates many agricultural products in the daily diet of humans. More than 50% of patients with developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) feature AFB1 exposure due to their shared consumption of contaminated food. One of the main mechanisms of AFB1-induced liver carcinogenesis is its biological activation and its interaction with DNA to produce AFB1-E-N7-dG adduct. This product may result in the formation of DNA damage and the mutations of tumor-associated genes such as TP53 and ras. In human, several pathways involving in AFB1 detoxification, including I- and II-type detoxification, DNA repair, have been reported. This study reviewed the detoxification mechanisms of AFB1 in human as well as AFB1 occurrence and toxification. Additionally, we also discussed prevention methods for AFB1 exposure.
Part of the book: Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence, Detection and Toxicological Effects